In this long, fascinating article by Ross Andersen of ‘The Atlantic’, we are taken on two journies; one to India to witness Jainism in action, the other to consider the origin of consciousness in animals.  In his article Andersen writes about how fruit flies resort to alcohol in the form of fermented fruit when faced with dim mating prospects, crows use traffic on busy highways to open their walnuts, and fish speculate about the behaviour of other beings.  The Jains have accorded other animals consciousness for nearly 3,000 years: scientific studies are beginning to show they are right.

https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2019/03/what-the-crow-knows/580726/?fbclid=IwAR14D68e4GiMikDOTWPoR0KKrzpqCeBd4LYFOIkqJhqSclb-I5rfMN42PsU